What is an Object?

Objects in salesforce like an excel sheets but it has many features. It is more than excelsheets. 

But as a beginner you only need to know that it is a kind of table. 

It includes fields and records. If we compare it with excel sheet fields are columns and Rows are the Records. 

What is an Object Types?

There are simple Standard and Custom objects in Salesforce. But in the future you also recognize that There are also External and Big objects as well. Further more object kind of structures such as Custom Meta Data Types and Custom Settings will be come to the stages. When you are diving into the details.

But at first sight you should only know What is Standard and What is Custom Object in Salesforce.

What is an Standard Salesforce Object?

When you get a new Salesforce Developer Free Account or your company purchase a salesforce cloud you can easly recognize Standard Salesforce Objects. These objects are out-of-the box objects. They have many features but mainly they are all required stuff in Sales Cloud and Service Cloud. 

What is an Custom Salesforce Object?

If you need to customize the salesforce according to business requirements you may need Custom Objects. Custom objects are created by either Salesforce Administrator or Developer.  It is same as the Standard object but some of the features are different. You will learn these details later.